Terminology. Climate variability is the term to describe variations in the mean state and other characteristics of climate (such as chances or possibility of extreme weather, etc.) "on all spatial and temporal scales beyond that of individual weather events."Some of the variability does not appear to be caused systematically and occurs at random times. Anthropogenic Climate Change. Anthropogenic change (otherwise known as anthropogenic climate change) refers to the emission of greenhouse gases that occur specifically as a result of human activity. There are a number of ways in which humans all over the globe release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which in turn is having a huge affect on the climate as a whole, as well as other.
Anthropogenic change otherwise known as anthropogenic climate change refers to the emission of greenhouse gases that occur specifically as a result of human activity. There are a number of ways in which humans all over the globe release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which in turn is having a huge affect on the climate as mena whole, as well as other aspects of the natural world including the quality of animal, plant and human life.
Although there are some that deny anthropogenic climate change is real, it has been consistently proven by scientists that the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases currently in the atmosphere what is the one move technique the cnange it has been in years, and it just keeps increasing. What does climate change mean in geography carbon dioxide, the amount of water vapor, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere has increased exponentially and continues to do so as a direct result of human activity.
One of the big questions in the climate change debate: Are humans any smarter than frogs in a pot? Instead, it will enjoy the nice warm bath until it is cooked to death. We humans seem to be doing pretty chante the same thing. Man-made activities like deforestationmining and burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, land use change, industrial processes, and waste cause greenhouse gas emissions. Post industrial era, there has been significant increase in the emission of greenhouse gases that does not stem from natural mechanisms which may result in change in average surface temperature climtae changes to the frequency of extreme events including storms and hurricanes.
During night, the Earth cools down and releases the climte. While some of the heat escapes back into the space thereby cooling the planet, the greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere absorb rest of the heat and emit it back towards the Earth resulting in increased CO2 emissions.
The anthropogenic climate change suggests that increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is raising global temperatures. There are a how to use clairvoyance lol of ways in which humans contribute to climate change each clomate every day. Although many of these ways are ones that we have become used it, it is essential that we start to try and find alternatives so that we can start to reverse climate change and save the planet from further destruction.
Chanbe of the biggest contributing factors to climate change — and one that is completely caused by humans alone — is the burning of fossil fuels. In order to heat our homes, drive our cars and power our electronic devices, we need to burn coal, gas or oil in large quantities.
These fossil fuels are made what does climate change mean in geography carbon dioxide that has, for many millions of years, been sitting in the earth, but that is now being released back into the air. This is directly causing an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the air which is causing all sorts of problems, including global warming.
Farming is one of the ways in which it is emitted. Nowadays, we have many what does climate change mean in geography of cows on farms all how to make a bar stool racer the world that are used to feed our ever growing population.
These cows release methane gas into the atmosphere and, whilst several thousand cows would not make much difference, because we now breed so many all over the world, they are starting to contribute to climate change as a direct result of the interference of humans. Aerosols are very small particles that are naturally present in the atmosphere. However, the amount of aerosols present in the air today is much higher than before humans started burning fossil fuels.
Now, more and more aerosols contain black carbon, organic compounds and even sulfur compounds. This means that more and more chemicals are present in the air that not only we breathe, but that other animals and plants respire, which is causing a lot of difficulties for species all over the globe.
In order to improve our crop yield year upon year to cope with the increasing population, we use chemical fertilizers on our farmland in order to make our food sources more plentiful.
However, these fertilizers, which are often very dangerous to ingest for humans and animals alike, are making their way into our atmosphere, meaning that we are starting to breathe them in. Additionally, fertilizers often contain a lot of nitrous oxide, another greenhouse gas that is causing the average temperature of the surface of the Climzte to rise steadily over the years. Luckily, a lot of the damage we have done to the environment can be reversed if we start being more aware of the impact of the things we are doing such as burning fossil fuels and dhat.
While we cannot necessarily just stop driving cars, farming cattle or using fertilizers, for instance, we can start to limit our use and change some of our other habits in order to reduce the rate of climate change. While gas, oil and coal still what does climate change mean in geography our best options for producing energy for very many reasons, we can start to limit the amount we use. Until we what does climate change mean in geography a car that can run just on solar power or on water, for instance, we are going to need to use petrol, but that does not mean that we cannot use solar power to heat our homes or boil our kettles.
Many countries all around the world are starting to use wind power which is clean and renewable, and, while the subject of nuclear power is still fairly sore, it does actually provide a relatively safe and clean cliate to fossil fuels.
While we do still need to feed the people of the Earth, we could start to farm in a more climate friendly way. At the moment, a lot of the production from cattle — both gwography and meat — goes to waste. Either we need to start putting these products to good use or we need to cut down on the amount that we produce.
By buying less beef each week and a couple of pints less of milk, we can soon ckimate the demand for these products and how to deal with paranoid people sure that the farming of cows is cut down.
Eating food that has been produced locally can drastically reduce chang carbon footprint. A huge amount of the food that we consume has been flown many thousands of miles all over the globe. Tomatoes, for instance, do not grow in winter, and therefore have to be imported from Spain and other hotter countries.
By eating seasonally and locally, we are reducing the amount of energy that is spent flying those sorts of products halfway across the globe. Unfortunately, not all countries around the world are the moment offer viable renewable energy alternatives to coal, gas and oil. However, everyone can still do their bit to reduce their carbon footprint by limiting their use of things such as cars and by living in a more energy efficient way.
This means switching lights off when leaving a room and either not driving to work or care-sharing with coworkers. There are a great many ways in which to become more energy efficient and thus reduce the amount of fossil fuels that are burned, releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Recycling a tin can, for instance, takes less amount of energy than making a new one, and paper can be recycled quite a few times before it needs to be thrown away. Trying to reduce your waste and trying to recycle as much as possible not only means that fewer products such as plastic which take many thousands of years to break down get put into the ground and continue to be used in circulation.
Sonia Madaan is a writer and founding editor of science education blog EarthEclipse. Her passion for science education drove her to start EarthEclipse with the sole objective of finding and sharing fun and interesting science facts. She loves writing on topics related to space, environment, chemistry, biology, geology and geography. When she doee not writing, she loves watching sci-fi movies on Netflix.
Anthropogenic Climate Change Anthropogenic change otherwise known as anthropogenic climate change refers to the emission of greenhouse gases that occur specifically as a result of human activity. Related Posts
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics category. Climate category Climate change category. Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more. In the time since the industrial revolution , the climate has increasingly been affected by human activities that are causing global warming and climate change.
The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun. The climate system also radiates energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, Earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and Earth experiences cooling.
The energy moving through Earth's climate system finds expression in weather , varying on geographic scales and time.
Long-term averages and variability of weather in a region constitute the region's climate. Such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter the distribution of energy. Examples include variability in ocean basins such as the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate variability can also result from external forcing , when events outside of the climate system's components nonetheless produce changes within the system.
Examples include changes in solar output and volcanism. Climate variability has consequences for sea level changes, plant life, and mass extinctions; it also affects human societies. Climate variability is the term to describe variations in the mean state and other characteristics of climate such as chances or possibility of extreme weather , etc.
Such variability is called random variability or noise. On the other hand, periodic variability occurs relatively regularly and in distinct modes of variability or climate patterns. The term climate change is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change also known as global warming. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes.
Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term, climatic change , was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization WMO in to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause. During the s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate.
Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth. This energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents,   and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions. Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms".
External forcing can be either anthropogenic e. There are also key thresholds which when exceeded can produce rapid or irreversible change. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more slowly in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly.
An example of fast change is the atmospheric cooling after a volcanic eruption, when volcanic ash reflects sunlight. Thermal expansion of ocean water after atmospheric warming is slow, and can take thousands of years. A combination is also possible, e. Climate variability can also occur due to internal processes.
Internal unforced processes often involve changes in the distribution of energy in the ocean and atmosphere, for instance, changes in the thermohaline circulation. Climatic changes due to internal variability sometimes occur in cycles or oscillations.
For other types of natural climatic change, we cannot predict when it happens; the change is called random or stochastic. Due to climate inertia , this signal can be 'stored' in the ocean and be expressed as variability on longer time scales than the original weather disturbances. This behavior is dubbed stochastic resonance. The ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time.
A climate oscillation or climate cycle is any recurring cyclical oscillation within global or regional climate. They are quasiperiodic not perfectly periodic , so a Fourier analysis of the data does not have sharp peaks in the spectrum. Many oscillations on different time-scales have been found or hypothesized: . The oceanic aspects of climate variability can generate variability on centennial timescales due to the ocean having hundreds of times more mass than in the atmosphere , and thus very high thermal inertia.
For example, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat in the world's oceans. Ocean currents transport a lot of energy from the warm tropical regions to the colder polar regions. Changes occurring around the last ice age in technical terms, the last glacial show that the circulation is the North Atlantic can change suddenly and substantially, leading to global climate changes, even though the total amount of energy coming into the climate system didn't change much.
These large changes may have come from so called Heinrich events where internal instability of ice sheets caused huge ice bergs to be released into the ocean. When the ice sheet melts, the resulting water is very low in salt and cold, driving changes in circulation.
Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedo , evapotranspiration , cloud formation , and weathering. Whereas greenhouse gases released by the biosphere is often seen as a feedback or internal climate process, greenhouse gases emitted from volcanoes are typically classified as external by climatologists. Volcanoes are also part of the extended carbon cycle. Over very long geological time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks.
Since the industrial revolution , humanity has been adding to greenhouse gases by emitting CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion, changing land use through deforestation, and has further altered the climate with aerosols particulate matter in the atmosphere ,  release of trace gases e. The US Geological Survey estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than the effects of current human activities, which generate — times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes.
Slight variations in Earth's motion lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution. The three types of kinematic change are variations in Earth's eccentricity , changes in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotation , and precession of Earth's axis.
Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which affect climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods ,  their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara ,  and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.
During the glacial cycles, there was a high correlation between CO 2 concentrations and temperatures. Early studies indicated that CO 2 concentrations lagged temperatures, but it has become clear that this isn't always the case. The exchange of CO 2 between the air and the ocean can also be impacted by further aspects of climatic change. The Sun is the predominant source of energy input to the Earth's climate system.
Other sources include geothermal energy from the Earth's core, tidal energy from the Moon and heat from the decay of radioactive compounds. Both long term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean   and Archean   eons, leading to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox.
Over the next five billion years, the Sun's ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time.
The eruptions considered to be large enough to affect the Earth's climate on a scale of more than 1 year are the ones that inject over , tons of SO 2 into the stratosphere.
Although volcanoes are technically part of the lithosphere, which itself is part of the climate system, the IPCC explicitly defines volcanism as an external forcing agent. Notable eruptions in the historical records are the eruption of Mount Pinatubo which lowered global temperatures by about 0.
At a larger scale—a few times every 50 million to million years—the eruption of large igneous provinces brings large quantities of igneous rock from the mantle and lithosphere to the Earth's surface.
Carbon dioxide in the rock is then released into the atmosphere. However, because smaller eruptions occur at a much higher frequency, they too significantly affect Earth's atmosphere. Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.
The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation. The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate.
A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 5 million years ago, which shut off direct mixing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
This strongly affected the ocean dynamics of what is now the Gulf Stream and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover. The size of continents is also important. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland.
A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands. It has been postulated that ionized particles known as cosmic rays could impact cloud cover and thereby the climate. As the sun shields the Earth from these particles, changes in solar activity were hypothesized to influence climate indirectly as well. Evidence exists that the Chicxulub asteroid impact some 66 million years ago had severely affected the Earth's climate.
The recovery time for this event took more than 30 years. The hypothesis is that soot released by large-scale fires blocks a significant fraction of sunlight for as much as a year, leading to a sharp drop in temperatures for a few years. This possible event is described as nuclear winter. Humans' use of land impact how much sunlight the surface reflects and the concentration of dust.
Cloud formation is not only influenced by how much water is in the air and the temperature, but also by the amount of aerosols in the air such as dust. Paleoclimatology is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks , sediments , ice sheets , tree rings , corals , shells , and microfossils.
It then uses the records to determine the past states of the Earth 's various climate regions and its atmospheric system. Direct measurements give a more complete overview of climate variability. Climate changes that occurred after the widespread deployment of measuring devices, can be observed directly.
Reasonably complete global records of surface temperature are available beginning from the mid-late 19th century. Further observations are done by satellite and derived indirectly from historical documents. Satellite cloud and precipitation data has been available since the s.