Shochu, however, can be made from a number of base ingredients, examples of which include Imo (Japanese sweet potato), barley, rice, buckwheat, and sugar cane. Because each of these base ingredients brings its own unique flavor to the final product, Honkaku Shochu comes in a wide variety of flavors and overtones. Aug 29, · Top-quality shochu, called honkaku shochu, is single-distilled, allowing it to retain the flavors of its base ingredient. As such, a sweet potato shochu will taste very different from a rice shochu.
Meanwhile, sake continues to gain popularity, with U. For some consumers, however, questions cloud these categories. And how does soju play into things? Soju is a clear spirit that originated in Korea. It was traditionally made with rice but, ever since distilling rice was banned during the Korean War, distillers have used other grains and starches, such as wheat, sweet potatoes, and even tapioca. As a result, sojus vary in aroma and flavor.
Soju is most often drunk straight with food, like wine, but is also used in cocktails, like a spirit. In New York and California, for examplesoju no more than 24 percent alcohol by volume can be sold under a beer and wine licensewhich is cheaper and easier for restaurants to acquire than a liquor license.
Shochu originated in Japan at least years ago. What is a subtopic in an essay shares certain characteristics with soju, including a similarly low ABV between 25 and 30 percent ABV on average and pronunciation.
Shochu is also most commonly made from sweet potato imo-jochubarley mugi-jochuor rice kome-jochu. Top-quality shochu, called honkaku shochu, is single-distilled, allowing it to retain the flavors of its base ingredient. As such, a sweet potato shochu will taste very different from a rice shochu. Shochu is also most often consumed on the rocks, mixed with cold what is considered undetectable hiv hot water, or with fresh juice, which lowers the alcohol content even further to about 12 to 15 percent ABV, similar to a glass of wine.
It can also be used as a substitute spirit in classic cocktails like the Martini or Negroni. Nor is it Japanese vodka, or a what is the percent increase spirit of any kind. Sake has more in common with beer than any other alcoholic beverage. It is usually clear and still; but unfiltered sake is milky white, and some sakes are carbonated. Sake is best served room temperature. It can also be served cold or warm, though the latter is often reserved for cheaper, less refined sake.
Finally, though Americans are often taught or tempted to pair their sake with sushi — or, shudderas part of a sake bomb — neither practice is common in Japan. There, it is seen more as a palate cleanser, best enjoyed between meals or on its own.
Sake quality and cost are all about the level of polish, or the amount the rice grains have been milled what is shochu made from brewing. All rice grains are polished about 10 percent before they reach a sake brewery. To make premium sake, brewers polish it what is shochu made from, to varying degrees. In his book The Year of Drinking Adventurously: 52 Ways to Get Out of Your Comfort ZoneJeff Cioletti breaks it down as follows: Sake brewed with rice polished to 70 percent its original size is generally referred to as either junmai or honjozo.
Ginjo refers to sake whose rice grains are polished to 60 percent or less; and daiginjoto 50 percent or less. The more polished the rice, the cleaner and more elegant the flavor, ranging from rich and what is shochu made from, to light and fruity.
You can learn more about sake styles here. Published: August 29,
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Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries Juniperus communis. Gin originated as a medicinal liquor made by monks and alchemists across Europe, particularly in southern France, Flanders and the Netherlands, to provide aqua vita from distillates of grapes and grains.
It then became an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin emerged in England after the introduction of the jenever , a Dutch and Belgian liquor that was originally a medicine. Although this development had been taking place since the early 17th century, gin became widespread after the William of Orange -led Glorious Revolution and subsequent import restrictions on French brandy.
Gin today is produced in different ways from a wide range of herbal ingredients, giving rise to a number of distinct styles and brands. It is most commonly consumed mixed with tonic water. Gin is also often used as a base spirit to produce flavoured gin-based liqueurs such as, for example, sloe gin , traditionally by the addition of fruit, flavourings and sugar. The earliest known written reference to jenever appears in the 13th-century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme Bruges , with the earliest printed recipe for jenever dating from 16th-century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec Antwerp.
Gin's roots can be further traced to 11th-century Benedictine monks in Salerno, in southern Italy, in a monastery surrounded by rolling hills and juniper trees. These monks used a swan-necked alembic still; the kind invented by Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan in Baghdad in the late s.
The monks used it to distill sharp, fiery, alcoholic tonics, one of which was distilled from wine infused with juniper berries.
They were making medicines, hence the juniper. Across Europe, apothecaries handed out juniper tonic wines for coughs, colds, pains, strains, ruptures and cramps. These were a popular cure-all. A little too popular, according to some, who thought people were keener to take their medicine than they should be. The physician Franciscus Sylvius has been falsely credited with the invention of gin in the midth century,  although the existence of jenever is confirmed in Philip Massinger 's play The Duke of Milan , when Sylvius would have been about nine years old.
It is further claimed that English soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish in , during the Eighty Years' War , were already drinking jenever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch courage is believed to have originated. By the midth century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers had popularized the re-distillation of malted barley spirit or malt wine with juniper, anise , caraway , coriander , etc. Gin emerged in England in varying forms by the early 17th century, and at the time of the Restoration , enjoyed a brief resurgence.
Gin drinking in England rose significantly after the government allowed unlicensed gin production, and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits such as French brandy. This created a larger market for poor-quality barley that was unfit for brewing beer , and in — thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze.
Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. The epithet mother's ruin is a common British name for gin, the origin of which is the subject of ongoing debate. The Gin Act imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in The Gin Act was more successful, however; it forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates.
In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled legally in residential houses there were estimated to be 1, residential stills in and was often flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper. Another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid.
Although the acid itself does not distil, it imparts the additional aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin. Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two ethanol molecules to create diethyl ether , which also forms an azeotrope with ethanol, and therefore distils with it.
The result is a sweeter spirit, and one that may have possessed additional analgesic or even intoxicating effects — see Paracelsus. Dutch or Belgian gin, also known as jenever or genever , evolved from malt wine spirits, and is a distinctly different drink from later styles of gin. Schiedam , a city in the province of South Holland , is famous for its jenever -producing history.
The same for Hasselt in the Belgian province of Limburg. The oude old style of jenever remained very popular throughout the 19th century, where it was referred to as Holland or Geneva gin in popular, American, pre-Prohibition bartender guides. The 18th century gave rise to a style of gin referred to as Old Tom gin , which is a softer, sweeter style of gin, often containing sugar.
Old Tom gin faded in popularity by the early 20th century. The invention and development of the column still and  made the distillation of neutral spirits practical, thus enabling the creation of the "London dry" style that evolved later in the 19th century. In tropical British colonies gin was used to mask the bitter flavour of quinine , which was the only effective anti-malarial compound. Quinine was dissolved in carbonated water to form tonic water ; the resulting cocktail is gin and tonic , although modern tonic water contains only a trace of quinine as a flavouring.
Gin is a common base spirit for many mixed drinks , including the martini. Secretly produced " bathtub gin " was available in the speakeasies and "blind pigs" of Prohibition -era America as a result of the relative simple production. Sloe gin is traditionally described as a liqueur made by infusing sloes the fruit of the blackthorn in gin, although modern versions are almost always compounded from neutral spirits and flavourings.
Similar infusions are possible with other fruits, such as damsons. Since gin has been in a period of ascendancy worldwide,  with many new brands and producers entering the category leading to a period of strong growth, innovation and change.
More recently gin-based liqueurs have been popularised, reaching a market outside that of traditional gin drinkers, including fruit-flavoured and usually coloured "Pink gin",  Rhubarb gin, Spiced gin, Violet gin, Blood orange gin and Sloe gin. Surging popularity and unchecked competition has led to consumer's conflation of gin with gin liqueurs and many products are straddling, pushing or breaking the boundaries of established definitions in a period of genesis for the industry.
All ultimately derive from juniperus , the Latin for juniper. Although many different styles of gin have evolved, it is legally differentiated into four categories in the European Union, as follows.
Gin produced only through the redistillation of botanicals can be further distinguished and marketed as "distilled gin". Whereas a more detailed regulation is provided for Holland gin or genever, no distinction is made between compounded gin and distilled gin.
Either compounded or distilled gin can be labelled as Dry Gin or London Dry Gin if it does not contain any sweetening agents. Some legal classifications protected denomination of origin define gin as only originating from specific geographical areas without any further restrictions e. Old Tom gin. Sloe gin is also worth mentioning as although technically a gin-based liqueur it is unique in that the EU spirit drink regulations stipulate the colloquial term sloe gin can legally be used without the "liqueur" suffix when certain production criteria are met.
Gin can be broadly differentiated into three basic styles reflecting modernization in its distillation and flavouring techniques: . Popular botanicals or flavouring agents for gin, besides the required juniper, often include citrus elements, such as lemon and bitter orange peel, as well as a combination of other spices, which may include any of anise , angelica root and seed, orris root , licorice root, cinnamon , almond, cubeb , savory , lime peel, grapefruit peel, dragon eye longan , saffron , baobab , frankincense , coriander , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cassia bark or others.
The different combinations and concentrations of these botanicals in the distillation process cause the variations in taste among gin products. Chemical research has begun to identify the various chemicals that are extracted in the distillation process and contribute to gin's flavouring.
For example, juniper monoterpenes come from juniper berries. Citric and berry flavours come from chemicals such as limonene and gamma-terpinene linalool found in limes, blueberries and hops amongst others. Floral notes come from compounds such as geraniol and euganol.
Spice-like flavours come from chemicals such as sabinene , deltacarene, and para-cymene. In , more than half the growth in the UK Gin category was contributed by flavoured gin. According to the Canadian Food and Drug Regulation, gin is produced through redistillation of alcohol from juniper-berries or a mixture of more than one such redistilled food products.
A well known gin cocktail is the martini , traditionally made with gin and dry vermouth. Several other notable gin-based drinks include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Distilled alcoholic drink flavoured with juniper.
This article is about the alcoholic beverage. For the card game, see Gin rummy. For other uses, see Gin disambiguation. Archie Rose Distilling Co. Liquor portal. Brill Academic Publishers. This is alcohol. Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN Retrieved 6 October OCLC Charles Rivington. Georgian Britain. British Library. Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 28 July English Language and Usage. Retrieved 18 January The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 29 March Google Trends. Retrieved ISSN Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary.
Oxford University Press. Ortolang in French. For jenever , see De Vries, Jan Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek in Dutch.